Provides nectar for butterflies such as: clouded sulphur, purplish copper, gray hairstreak, snout butterfly, silver-bordered fritillary, pearl crescent, Milbert's tortoise shell, viceroy, wood nymph, monarch, eastern tailed blue. (Wildtype)
Habitat Information: A note about goldenrod species in general; several species of goldenrod are found in prairies, meadows and also woodlands, and are highly attractive plants that deserve consideration in gardens. They have gorgeous, usually yellow or white flowers and are important fall and winter food sources for insects and birds. Because Goldenrod bloom at the same time as other allergy culprits however, the showy yellow flowers have a bad reputation. The real culprits are plants such as Ragweed, that are wind pollinated, so are easily inhaled, causing respiratory irritation. Goldenrods have showy flowers which are attractive to insects and have heavy sticky pollen carried by insects, not wind (Planting The Seed, A Guide to Establishing Prairie and Meadow Plants in Southern Ontario).
Pine siskins, swamp sparrows and meadow mice eat the seeds. (Wildflower Centre,LBJ)
Pollinated by solitary bees like (Adrena) the solitary mining bee and (Colletes)the cellophane bee, who both make their nests in the ground. (David Suzuki Foundation)
The stems are distinctly zig-zagged near the top. Radiates heads with few florets on them. (Dickinson et al, ROM Guide Wildflow. Ont.)
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