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Winterberry

( Ilex verticillata )

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Winterberry
Aquifoliaceae
Ilex
Ilex verticillata
(Linnaeus) A. Gray
Ilex bronxensis
Ilex verticillata var. cyclophylla
Ilex verticillata var. fastigiata
Ilex verticillata var. padifolia
Ilex vertillata var. tenuifolia
Characteristics

Shrub

Deciduous

3

Sun, Partial Shade

Clay, Sand, Loam

Acidophile

Normal, Moist, Wet

No

No

Yes

No

ON, QC, NB, NS, PE, NF
Habitat Considerations

Boreal Shield, Atlantic Maritime, Mixedwood Plains

Prairie/Meadow/Field, Wet Meadow/Prairie/Field, Riparian, Swamp/Marsh, Bog/Fen

Pond Edge/Wetland Garden, Bird, Hedgerow/Thicket/Windbreak/Screening, Prairie/Meadow
Design Considerations

120 cm

250 cm

May - Jun

White/Cream|Green/Brown

No

Yes

Red|Orange


Henry's Elfin butterfly

No

No

Yes

No

Yes


Birds, Butterfly Larvae, Bees

No
Conservation Status

No


Interesting Tidbits

Ilex berries and leaves contain an array of potential toxins which can cause moderate to severe nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and rarely narcosis. Poisonous substance is theobromine. Death is unlikely. Observe carefully cases of where more than 2-3 berries have been ingested. (Ferris, H.) Sensory Aspect: Grayish bark and smooth twigs The purplish-green foliage turns black, in fact, with the first frost.(Lady Bird Johnson, 2005) This species is deer resistant. (Evergreen) Male and female flowers born on separate plants, therefore both must be planted near each other for pollination and fruit set to occur... The wooly bear caterpillar feeds on winterberry leaves. (John Kadel Boring) Ilex verticillata, winterberry, is often a marker of Fraxinus nigra, black ash, habitat. (Beresford-Kroeger, D.)


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