Ilex berries and leaves contain an array of potential toxins which can cause moderate to severe nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and rarely narcosis. Poisonous substance is theobromine.
Death is unlikely. Observe carefully cases of where more than 2-3 berries have been ingested. (Ferris, H.)
Sensory Aspect: Grayish bark and smooth twigs
The purplish-green foliage turns black, in fact, with the first frost.(Lady Bird Johnson, 2005)
This species is deer resistant. (Evergreen)
Male and female flowers born on separate plants, therefore both must be planted near each other for pollination and fruit set to occur... The wooly bear caterpillar feeds on winterberry leaves. (John Kadel Boring)
Ilex verticillata, winterberry, is often a marker of Fraxinus nigra, black ash, habitat. (Beresford-Kroeger, D.)
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